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Tools and Data




MaRTy is a mobile biometeorological instrument platform that measures air temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, GPS coordinates, and MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) using the 6-directional method.


The right shade in the right place/50 grades of shade
Health Impact Project
Cool pavement
Campus Mapping


Ariane Middel, E. Scott Krayenhoff. (2019). Micrometeorological determinants of pedestrian thermal exposure during record-breaking heat in Tempe, Arizona: Introducing the MaRTy observational platform, Science of the Total Environment, 687:137–151.


Thermal Imagery

The FLIR E85 thermal camera measures surface temperatures with a 384 x 288 true native resolution and provides insight into “invisible” thermal properties.


Cool Art
Arterial Walls


Kestrel Heat Stress Trackers

The handheld Kestrel meter measures Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Globe Temperature – an important metric for thermal comfort studies.


Kaylee Colter, Ariane Middel, Chris A. Martin. (2019). Effects of natural and artificial shade on human thermal comfort in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 44:126429.

Mehdi Aminipouri, David Rayner, Fredrik Lindberg, Sofia Thorsson, Anders Jensen Knudby, Kirsten Zickfeld, Ariane Middel, E. Scott Krayenhoff. (2019). Urban tree planting to maintain outdoor thermal comfort under climate change: The case of Vancouver's local climate zones. Building and Environment, 158, 226–236.

Mehdi Aminipouri, Anders Jensen Knudby, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Kirsten Zickfeld, Ariane Middel. (2019). Modelling the impact of increased street tree cover on mean radiant temperature across Vancouver’s local climate zones. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 39:9–17.

Ariane Middel, Nancy Selover, Björn Hagen, Nalini Chhetri. (2016). Impact of Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort - A Seasonal Field Study in Tempe, Arizona, International Journal of Biometeorology, 60(12):1849–1861.

Katherine Crewe, Anthony J. Brazel, Ariane Middel. (2016). Desert New Urbanism: Testing for Comfort in Downtown Tempe Arizona, Journal of Urban Design, 21(6):746–763.



The computational fluid dynamics model ENVI-met is widely used to simulate neighborhood outdoor.


Campus Heat Mapping


Ariane Middel, Nalini Chhetri, Ray Quay. (2015). Urban Forestry and Cool Roofs: Assessment of Heat Mitigation Strategies in Phoenix Residential Neighborhoods, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14(1):178–186.

Ariane Middel, Kathrin Häb, Anthony J. Brazel, Chris Martin, Subhrajit Guhathakurta. (2014). Impact of Urban Form and Design on Mid-Afternoon Microclimate in Phoenix Local Climate Zones, Landscape and Urban Planning, 122:16–28.



Street View Segmentations

Deep Learning was used to extract spherical surface type fractions (buildings, impervious and pervious surfaces, trees, sky, non-permanent objects) from Street View images. A visualization of the data set can be found here. Please allow some time to load the visualization.

Data will be available for download soon.


Sky View Factor Footprints


Jason Ching et al. (2019). Pathway using WUDAPT’s Digital Synthetic City tool towards generating urban canopy parameters for multi-scale urban atmospheric modeling, Urban Climate, 28.

Matthias Demuzere, Benjamin Bechtel, Ariane Middel, Gerald Mills. (2019). Mapping Europe into Local Climate Zones, PLoS ONE, 14(4): e0214474.

Yujia Zhang, Ariane Middel, Billie L. Turner II. (2019). Evaluating the Effects of Vertical Urban Forms on Neighborhood Land Surface Temperature Using Google Street View Images. Landscape Ecology, 34(3), 681–697.

Ariane Middel, Jonas Lukasczyk, Sophie Zakrzewski, Michael Arnold, Ross Maciejewski. (2019). Urban Form and Composition of Street Canyons: A Human-Centric Big Data and Deep Learning Approach, Landscape and Urban Planning, 183:122–132.

Benjamin Bechtel et al. (2019). Generating WUDAPT Level 0 data – current status of production and evaluation. Urban Climate, 27:24-45.

Ariane Middel, Jonas Lukasczyk, Ross Maciejewski, Matthias Demuzere, Matthias Roth. (2018). Sky View Factor Footprints for Urban Climate Modeling, Urban Climate, 25:120–134.

Ariane Middel, Jonas Lukasczyk, Ross Maciejewski. (2017). Sky View Factors from Synthetic Fisheye Photos for Thermal Comfort Routing – A Case Study in Phoenix, Arizona, Urban Planning, 2(1):19–30.